- Doctoral Candidate
- University of California, Los Angeles
I provide annotated translations of the Chinese Yizujing (義足經) (the Sūtra of Profound Meaning, T198) and its parallels––the Pāli Aṭṭhakavagga and the two fragmentary versions in Sanskrit (Hoernle, 1916) and Gāndhārī (Falk, 2011). Then, I undertake a cross-textual study of the four versions word for word. In so doing, I argue that the content of this rich textual amalgam spans from the pre-institutional stage of Buddhism to the incipiency of Buddhist institutionalization. I suggest that in the earliest phase of Buddhism, multiple contradicting ideas could have coexisted with little conflict and Buddhist compilers would not have yet had an acute sense of a distinctive Buddhist identity.