The Formation of Buddhist Tantras Through the Assimilation of Other Indian Sources – Based on the Study of Unedited Sanskrit Texts of śaṃVara Tradition


The Robert H. N. Ho Family Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowships in Buddhist Studies


Asien-Afrika Institut


Taisho University


The cult of Śaṃvara (a.k.a Saṃvara or Cakrasaṃvara) was developed as the last state of Tantric Buddhism and classified as yoginītantra literature. In spite of the significance of this religious movement in Tantric Buddhism, many of texts belonging to this tradition have not been adequately studied yet. Since a large number of Sanskrit manuscripts of the Tantras are preserved but unedited, producing critical editions and translations is still a desideratum. Moreover, without the knowledge of intertextuality with other Indian sources, such as Śaiva, the development of the Śaṃvara tradition cannot be understood. Therefore, this project is aimed to provide a substantial study of the Śaṃvara doctrine and practice which were shared with non-Buddhist sources and to illuminate how the Śaṃvara cult assimilated their disparate factors into its own system.