African Humanities Program Postdoctoral Fellowships

Through fellowship competitions, regional workshops, and peer networking, the African Humanities Program provides support to the humanities in five African countries, including Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The centerpiece of the program is the distribution of fellowships to African scholars in these countries for work on dissertations, research projects, and scholarly manuscripts. Postdoctoral awards are listed below; also see dissertation completion awards.The program is supported by the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

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Watch "Emerging Themes and Methods of Research: A Discussion with ACLS Fellows," an annual meeting session featuring recent ACLS fellows. 


Mercy Akrofi-Ansah
Mercy Akrofi-Ansah  |  Abstract
The project investigates the patterns in triglossia and codeswitching in the Leteh language community. Leteh is a Guan language of the Kwa family of languages spoken in Larteh, in southeast Ghana. Three languages are in use in Larteh: Leteh, Akan, and English. Leteh is the first language learned by the people, and by virtue of geographical location and educational language policy, Akan is the second language. English is the third language spoken by the educated speakers of Leteh. Johnson (1975) describes the triglossic situation in Larteh as relatively stable. However, increased incidence of education, among other factors, changes the division of communicative functions of the three languages. In the Basic School and churches, switching between the three languages serves important functions in teaching, learning, and effective communication. Data collection tools for the project are sociolinguistic questionnaires and participant observation.

Research Fellow, Lingusitics, University of Ghana  -  Language Contact Phenomena in a Multilingual Community: The Case Of Larteh

Sarah Namulondo
Sarah Namulondo  |  Abstract
This project explores women’s experiences and expressions through an examination of writings by African women from the 1960s to the present. It takes into account analytical, narrative and stylistic observations that the writers employ to respond to the colonial and patriarchal structures that over the years have relegated the African woman to a domestic sphere. After discussing the problematics of African women within a patriarchal frame of reference, it focuses on the complex ways in which the writers have challenged or reformulated societal and familial roles, negotiated tradition, responded to political and cultural issues, and formulated a literary and feminist aesthetic.

Lecturer, Literature, Makerere University  -  Imagined Realities, Defying Subjects: Voice, Sexuality, and Subversion in African Women's Writing

Shireen Ally
Shireen Ally  |  Abstract
The figure of “the maid” inhabits the edge of a delicate dilemma in the public sphere of contemporary South African cities. Rendered as invisible and unacknowledged, a politics of recognition is prescribed through the potent grammar of “the vulnerable worker.” Yet, against this, South Africans inhabit an aesthetic field that is positively saturated by a radically alterior figure of “the maid.” In the creative literary and visual arts, young black artists such as designer Mary Sibande, photographer Zanele Muholi, and novelist Zukiswa Wanner, and in media as racially varied as Drum Magazine, political cartoons, and white suburban book clubs, the maid is re-mapped as mischievous, sentient beyond injury, racially redemptive, even sublimely beautiful. How do we reconcile an established ethics of solidarity that implores us to empathise with the suffering of the maid, and this burgeoning new aesthetics of imagination that enjoins us to fantasize the maid beyond suffering? This study navigates the intersection of ethics and aesthetics to explore the raced psychic and affective work exposed by the figure of the maid in the highly charged postcolonial public sphere of contemporary South African cities.

Researcher, NRF Chair (Local Histories, Present Realities), University of Witwatersrand  -  DomestiCity: Racial Anxiety and Fantasy in the Figure of “The Maid”

Saudah Namyalo
Saudah Namyalo  |  Abstract
This research is built on observation that linguistic terms used in teaching of Luganda at different levels of learning are haphazardly developed, particularly lacking precision, transparency, productivity, and systemicity. The study, therefore, analyses the transitory process and development of linguistic terms in in Luganda from 1902-2006. By analyzing the transitory process and development of linguistic terms in Luganda, it develops a theoretical foundation and basic premises for effective analysis and understanding of term formation mechanisms appropriate to Luganda language, a model that could be useful to other Bantu languages.This study is conducted within an eclectic framework based on a conceptual and semantic framework of term analysis and involves library research and content analysis supplemented by interviews.

Lecturer, Linguistics, Makerere University  -  A Semantic-Conceptual Approach to the Study and Formation of Linguistic Terms in Bantu Languages: A Case of Luganda

Evershed Kwasi Amuzu
Evershed Kwasi Amuzu  |  Abstract
Because English and French are in codeswitching (CS) contact with several typologically-different African languages, it was possible for scholars to show that certain variations in distribution of English and French lexemes in CS structures are due to the typological differences among the African languages. This study contributes to our knowledge about the role of language typology in CS by considering data sets in which an African language is in CS contact with English and French. The study compares the syntax of English verbs in Ewe-English CS with the syntax of French verbs in Ewe-French CS in order to (i) investigate the extent to which the distribution of the verbs relate to typological differences between English (Germanic) and French (Romance), and (ii) investigate the nature of influence that Ewe morphosyntactic principles exert on the distribution of English and French verbs.

Lecturer, Linguistics, University of Ghana  -  The Syntax of English and French Verbs in Ewe-English and Ewe-French Codeswitching

Edward Nanbigne
Edward Nanbigne  |  Abstract
This research explores the drinking of locally brewed sorghum beer, called Daan, among the Dagaaba of North-Western Ghana. It examines the myths of Daan as enshrined in the esoteric chants of the Bagre cult of the people; the protocols of communal drinking; and the sociopolitical and economic functions of Daan and its drinking. It also analyzes the types and styles of Daan discourses, along with the speakers involved. It argues that the event of Daan drinking outside of the ritual process provides an arena where the playing field of discourse is more or less level among the generations.

Research Fellow, African Literature and Languages, University of Ghana  -  “Cut me a drink”: A Discourse of Beer Drinking in Northwestern Ghana

Wazi Apoh
Wazi Apoh  |  Abstract
This project integrates oral accounts and archival and ethnographic data with archaeological findings to document the settlement and migration histories of the people of Kpando (the Akpinis) from the seventeenth century and their encounters with German and British missionary and colonial rules from 1847-83 to 1956. It documents much of the remembered past encounters from the aging population and from archaeological sites that are being impacted by new residential developments. This research augment the paucity of literature on these issues. Above all, it adds value to the heritage sites and encourages education and German/British heritage tourism in the Kpando area.

Lecturer, Archeology, University of Ghana  -  The Archaeology and Histories of the Akpinis, the Germans, and the British at Kpando, Ghana

Mathayo Bernard Ndomondo
Mathayo Bernard Ndomondo  |  Abstract
This study investigates the intersection of music, gender, religion, and state agencies in the war against HIV /AIDS in Tanzania. It explores how music, gender and sexuality, religion, and state agencies impact one another in the creative processes of musical and dramatic performances that address HIV/AIDS. The study views performance from multiple perspectives: as an avenue for the production of diverse types of knowledge such as musical, biomedical, religious, and localized or indigenous knowledge about healing in the context of HIV/AIDS; as a space in which gender and religious ideologies and identities are displayed and contested; and finally, as the space in which the manifestations of negotiations of power relations take place. Further, the study demonstrates that performance is more than space for message-oriented or crowd-attracting activity but serves as a site upon which readings of the social transformation of gender roles through performance take place.

Lecturer, Fine & Performing Arts, University of Dar es Salaam  -  Music and HIV/AIDS: The Performance of Gender, Identity, and Power in Tanzania

Reuben Makayiko Chirambo
Reuben Makayiko Chirambo  |  Abstract
This project argues that culture is critical in our understanding of the longevity in power, popular support, and legitimacy that some African dictatorships are able to establish, and suggests that we need to go beyond the use of force to account for their longevity. It uses Antonio Gramsci’s concept of hegemony as a delicate equilibrium of the use of force and consent and ability to provide political and ideological leadership as the basis for hegemony. The study examines the cultural basis of political leadership and power of the dictatorship of former president-for-life, Dr. H.K. Banda and the Malawi Congress Party in Malawi as a hegemonic dictatorship. It interrogates the social, cultural, and political discourses as sites of hegemony and of its contestation.

Senior Lecturer, English, University of Cape Town, South Africa  -  Culture, Hegemony, and Dictatorship in Malawi

Stella Nyanzi
Stella Nyanzi  |  Abstract
The Anti-Homosexuality Bill (2009) proposes to re-criminalize same-sex relations in Uganda with punishments ranging from monetary fines to periods of detention, mandatory testing for HIV, and even the death penalty for "aggravated homosexuality." The main proponents of this bill are fundamental conservative Christians including clergy, politicians, and elite professionals. Their strategies are initiated, informed, and influenced by American Christian Right authorities and ideologies based on interpretations of biblical scripture againt same-sex practices. This research critically examines the effects of the politicization of the literary construction of homosexuality as 'the sin of Sodom and Gomorrah' based on biblical scriptures upon local individuals who identify as sexual minorities in Uganda. Data collection triangulates qualitative research methods (including individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and ethnographic participant observation) with a systematic literature review and public media content analysis.

Research Fellow, Law, Makerere University  -  Politicising 'the Sin of Sodom and Gomorrah': Examining Christian Rightists' War Against Homosexuality in Uganda

Sule Emmanuel Egya
Sule Emmanuel Egya  |  Abstract
In his introduction to the seminal anthology “Voices from the Fringe: An ANA Anthology of New Nigerian Poetry” (1988), Harry Garuba announces the emergence of a new generation of Nigerian poets. Their poetry thematizes the military oppression in Nigeria in the 1980s and the 1990s. This research identifies the context, intertextuality, self-reflexivity, and dialogism in this dirge-like poetry, and situates it in the tradition of Nigerian poetry in English to show how the new poetry advances the discourse of nationhood, and how it distinguishes itself as a distinct generational response to a particular historical situation. The analytical focus is on the representative poetry of Remi Raji, Toyin Adewale, Ogaga Ifowodo, Emman Usman Shehu, Abubakar Othman, and Maria Ajima.

Lecturer, English and Literacy Studies, University of Abuja  -  The Nationalist Imagination in the Third Generation of Nigerian Poetry in English

Olukoya Joseph Ogen
Olukoya Joseph Ogen  |  Abstract
Studies have shown that one of the lasting demographic impacts of the Atlantic slave trade is the large concentration of Yoruba people across the world. Many scholars have therefore shown remarkable interest in the diffusion of Yoruba culture in the diaspora. Indeed, Yoruba diasporan historiography is largely synonymous with the study of Yoruba culture in the Atlantic world. Yet, the Yoruba are also spread across Europe, Asia, and the West African sub-region. Indeed, with the exception of Campbell (2005), Harris (1993), and Wyse (1991), who are mainly interested in contemporary Krio identity, the Yoruba diaspora in Sierra Leone as well as its cultural interconnectedness with the Yoruba homeland remains a neglected theme. Thus, this study examines the Yoruba diaspora in Sierra Leone against the background that its study has largely been subsumed under the rubric of the broad historiography on the African diaspora.

Associate Professor, History & International Studies, Osun State University  -  Forced Migration, Interregional Trade, and the Making of a Yoruba Diaspora in Sierra Leone

Austin Maro Emielu
Austin Maro Emielu  |  Abstract
This study is on the development of guitar music tradition among the Edo people of South-South Nigeria. It examines the social history of this musical tradition, its relationship to Edo traditional music, and why it has grown to become a voice of society for both rural and urban dwellers. It relies on primary data gathered through oral interviews and consultations with performing musicians, recording studios, audiences, cultural centres, and archives, and includes content analysis of selected song texts. Secondary data from published literature on the Edo people, culture and society, African music, popular music, and Nigerian history also enrich the work. The project addresses the issue of hybridity and authenticity in contemporary African performing arts advances the theory of 'Progressive Traditionalism,' which posits that culture can develop progressively without losing its traditional roots.

Lecturer, Performing Arts, University of Ilorin  -  A Historical and Ethnographic Study of Guitar Bands among the Edo People of Nigeria

Abayomi Victor Okunowo
Abayomi Victor Okunowo  |  Abstract
Written modern African literature is a victim of nineteenth-century European socioeconomic, cultural, and linguistic vandalism. A major consequence is a new politico-cultural matrix based on the images of atrocities unleashed by Europe, which continues to define African historicism into the twenty-first century. The use of European languages and apparent reluctance of a section of mainstream African writers to use African languages to produce African verbal artifacts are among the matrices that have emerged. These issues have become germane and central to the discursive endeavor in the epistemology of postcolonial African literature. The births of modernity, the style of its production, the purpose of its content, the language of its communication, and the identity of its canon have been argued timelessly. In all, the value of the arguments resides in widely communicating authentic African semiotics, along with the purpose, in relation to the primary society the literature is supposed to serve. Given these ramifications, this study revisits the issues of language, style, and meaning in African literature, expressed in English as Second Language, through the lens of Osundare’s writing. Osundare’s writing is generally acknowledged as coterminous with the contentious issues of language, style, and meaning in Anglophone modern African literature; for this reason, the study highlights and analyzes aspects of Osundare’s creative processes of meaning for his thematic project. Osundare’s stylistic deployment of African (Yoruba) ‘socio-semio-linguistic life’ frameworks (expressed on English as Second Language) evoked by material substance of language is most palpable in his deployment of metaphors, proverbs, word-making, graphology, and bilingual features of language contact as tropes of poetic meaning. Analyzing these components of Osundare’s writing is an attempt at characterizing his literary idiolect and its implications for the production and criticism of African literature

Lecturer, English, Tai Solarin University of Education  -  Osundare's Intrigues of Tongues: Ways of Meaning in an African Bilingual Literary Corpus

Eunice Ibekwe
Eunice Ibekwe  |  Abstract
A child is seen as a blessing to a family in the Agulu autonomous community and in Igbo culture as a whole. This accounts for the amount of attention lavished on children from conception to birth, weaning, games period, and even adolescence. The birth of a child calls for jubilation, merry-making, singing, and sometimes ululations encoded in a number of long hoots by immediate members of the family, often elderly women. Women are the most active participants in children’s musical activities, performing songs specific to each stage of a child’s development. Regrettably, these traditional songs are being edged out of existence by factors not unconnected with influences of modernization. This situation is perceived as being inimical to the sustenance and propagation of cultural values. Therefore, it becomes necessary that these songs are collected, notated, analyzed and documented for easy accessibility by future generations.

Lecturer, Music, Nnamdi Azikiwe University  -  Collection, Notation, and Analysis of Children’s Folk Songs in Agulu Rural Community of Igbo Culture

Rasheed Oyewole Olaniyi
Rasheed Oyewole Olaniyi  |  Abstract
This study examines the comparative socioeconomic experiences of West African migrants in Ibadan city to understand the role of inter-regional migration in urban development and power relations in the negotiation of identity. Using qualitative research methods, it analyzes a comparisons of Senegalese, Gambians, Ghanaians, Ivoriens, Malians, and Guineans in Ibadan from an identity-politics theoretical perspective to show the dynamics of mobility, livelihoods, citizenship, and identity within the urban space in the ECOWAS sub-region. As a social theory, the post-modern adoption of urban space explains migration across West African cities and how migrants influence identity processes in the city through diffusion of international standards or multi-cultural values, settlement patterns, interaction with one another, host community, and homeland and state authorities.

Lecturer, History, University of Ibadan  -  West African Migrants and Urban Space in Ibadan, Nigeria

Abubakar Aliyu Liman
Abubakar Aliyu Liman  |  Abstract
This study examines the emergent Hausa popular culture trends in the urban locations of northern Nigeria. It evaluates the implications of mass-mediated culture forms such as popular soyayya novellas, soyayya video films, and soyayya musical songs in a society that is deeply rooted in its traditional culture and Islamic values. The study therefore intends to prove that the global media flows, everywhere revitalizing specific manifestations of local cultures in a unique fashion, despite the skepticism and the resistance to the emergent modes of cultural expression by the dominant power structures. Invariably, the availability of electronic media technology is creating a situation in which traditional cultural forms are fast becoming integrated to the processes of cultural globalization through the production, distribution, and consumption of all forms of cultural diets, local and global. In this context, this study posits that the future of all cultural forms is hybridity and polyvalence.

Lecturer, English & Literacy Studies, Ahmadu Bello University  -  Islam, Power, and Mass-Mediated Culture in Northern Nigeria

Samuel Senayon Olaoluwa
Samuel Senayon Olaoluwa  |  Abstract
Ngugi wa Thiong'o's “Wizard of the Crow” is a novel decisively written to embody the imagination of Africa both in the twentieth and early part of the twenty-first centuries. This clearly accounts for its sheer volume (768 pages pages). In view of this, this study explores the various ramifications of the imaginaries invoked in the novel, which include nationhood and performance of power, gender, the representation of the public sphere, ecocriticism, HIV-AIDS, among others.

Lecturer, Languages & Linguistics, Osun State University  -  Enchantments from the Wizard: Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Postcolonial Imaginaries in Wizard of the Crow

Sa'adatu Hassan Liman
Sa'adatu Hassan Liman  |  Abstract
This project examines how culture affects Islamic practices among the citizens of Nasarawa and Plateau States of Nigeria. Shari’ah constitutes a platform in which Islamic religion stressed a preliminary transformation in consciousness as the prerequisite for social change. But the sentimental attachment to culture has translated sometimes into the retention of many harmful traditional practices that negate women’s human rights of the women, and also contradicts the tenets of Islam as a complete civilization. Using primary secondary and oral sources, this work examines relevant Shari’ah positions on those un-Islamic practices that cut across ethnic diversities in the two states and their effects on women’s rights in real life situations. The project aims to create possible dialogue on Shari’ah rights of the spouses as well as to ensure proper protection and dispensation of such rights by both genders.

Lecturer, Religious Studies, Nasarawa State University  -  Cultural Influences and Women’s Rights in the Application of Shari’ah in Nasarawa and Plateau States

Ozioma Onuzulike
Ozioma Onuzulike  |  Abstract
This study investigates the history of modern pottery in Nigeria in the twentieth Century. Using archival sources, library research, studio visits, and in-depth interviews, the study examines the history of the colonial pottery schemes in Nigeria, beginning 1904 in Ibadan, as well as the ways by which Kenneth Murray and other educationists developed pottery through arts and crafts lessons in schools in the colonial period. It also investigates the work of Michael Cardew at the Pottery Training Centre, Abuja, and provides knowledge on the history of other less known colonial and postcolonial pottery officers and pottery training centres and on the emergence of ceramic industries and art schools from the 1950s. The study also examines the work of contemporary potters in Ghana (where Michael Cardew first worked in the 1940s) and in Nigeria to demonstrate the perceived continuity and change of Cardew’s influence on the studio-pottery practices in both countries.

Lecturer, Fine & Applied Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka  -  Modern Nigerian Pottery: A Study of Historical Developments Since 1904

Pascah Mungwini
Pascah Mungwini  |  Abstract
The image of traditional African systems of thought as uncritical, unreflective, unscientific, closed, and substanceless represents one of the enduring misconceptions about African traditional thought and culture. This work argues that a critical and systematic analysis and interpretation of the often taken for granted traditions encompassing imaginative oral narratives, myths, folktales, songs, proverbs, riddles, idioms, ritual practices and beliefs, and other wise sayings can yield an African traditional philosophy. This work attempts to salvage an indigenous and African intellectual heritage that is threatened with extinction by drawing on oral traditions to reconstruct an indigenous philosophy of the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

Lecturer, Development Studies, University of Venda  -  The Shona Indigenous Philosophy: A Critical Reconstruction

Amidou Jean-Baptiste Sourou
Amidou Jean-Baptiste Sourou  |  Abstract
This project focuses on the contemporary ritual celebrations (weddings and funerals) among the Fon community in Benin. These celebration of rites are becoming ever more spectacular. The rituals are directed by musical groups and masters of ceremonies who are able to invent a new “hybrid” form of traditional songs, mixing new and old languages and symbols. Without changing the original meaning of the rites, the innovations make them memorable, actual, real, and highly participatory. These ritual celebrations are a major context for developing a new “hybrid” African culture. The innovators of these spectacular celebrations make particular use of music, which plays a central role in these rituals, in their discourses. Examining music’s relationship to ritual and dance reveals how it embodies symbolic forms in urban culture in Africa.

Lecturer, Social Sciences, Saint Augustine University of Tanzania  -  Music, Dance, and Urban Popular Culture in Africa: The Role and Nature of Music in Embodying New Symbolic Forms

Robert Muponde
Robert Muponde  |  Abstract
The project, initially inspired by the well-known story of the South African athlete Caster Semenya, uses the optic of the differently bodied to explore questions of culture and politics in Zimbabwe. The project researches the ways in which figurations of the differently bodied configure structures of cultural and political articulation. Put in another way, it asks whether the enfreaked body is the foundation for modes of social and political inscription or whether modes of social and political inscription enable diasbility/enfreakment. Following these questions: if one thinks of critical redress as a mode of social justice, and social justice in terms of representation in its aesthetic as well as political dimensions, what modes of representational redress are available in figuring the differently bodied? The research is located in a socio-political context characterised by the willful production of disfigurements as a form of social control, and the use and abuse of the disfigured/differently bodied as sources of metaphor and symbolism.

Associate Professor, English, University of Witwatersrand  -  Freaking Nation: Disability and the Differently Bodied in Imaginaries of Culture and Politics in Zimbabwe

Ngozi Nneka Udengwu
Ngozi Nneka Udengwu  |  Abstract
This project investigates and documents the contributions of women in the Traditional Yoruba Travelling Theatre movement whose works have either received scant attention or have been completely ignored. The women to be studied include some notable theatre company founders as well as notable female members of male theatre companies.The study reveals how these women were able to achieve success in an age when it was almost a taboo for women to be involved in the expressive art of theatre, enriching Nigerian theatre history and expanding theatre, performance, and women’s studies.

Senior Lecturer, Theatre and Film Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka  -  Women in the Traditional Yoruba Travelling Theatre in Nigeria, 1940 to 1990

Grace Ahingula Musila
Grace Ahingula Musila  |  Abstract
Primarily focusing on the 1988 murder of 28-year-old British tourist Julie Ward in Kenya's Maasai Mara Game Reserve, this project examines the role of narrative in shaping social imaginaries and public memory in/on Africa. Through an analysis of the three true crime books about the case, media reports, court transcripts, and rumors about the murder mystery, it engages with questions such as the persistence of colonial imaginaries in mediating metropolitan relationships with Africa; public memory and amnesia; and the limits of modernity in understanding Africa, among other concerns. At the core of the project is the question: Why would the death of an ordinary tourist in the Kenyan wilderness become the subject of contested narratives across Britain and Kenya? It argues that Julie Ward's death took place in a particular landscape laden with conflicted discourses about state power during the Moi regime; Kenyan and British attitudes towards female sexual morality; tensions about tourism, wildlife conservation, and constructions of postcolonial whiteness; and Kenyan and British transnational interests, all of which influenced the public discourses on the death and ultimately colored the quest for truth and justice.

Lecturer, English, University of Witwatersrand  -  Kenyan and British Social Imaginaries on Julie Ward's Death in Kenya

Victor Kwabena Yankah
Victor Kwabena Yankah  |  Abstract
A reading of some African plays reveals an emergent tendency to populate the stage with a group of two to five characters who function as a homogeneous entity in spite of minor conflicts among them in order to comment on, expose, and deride societal follies. Plays like “Woza Albert!” by Mtwa et al., Soyinka’s “Madmen and Specialists,” Osofisan’s “Once Upon Four Robbers,” and Mawugbe’s BBC 2009 International award-winning play “Prison Graduates” all use this trope. This research adopts the term “ensemble figure configuration” first used by Solomon Marcus as explicated in Pfister (1988) to describe this praxis, and proceeds to analyze the manner in which the peculiar strategies of ensemble figure configuration by these playwrights blend a critical attitude with wit, humor, and other devices to examine contemporary societal follies

Senior Lecturer, Drama, Film, University of Cape Coast  -  Ensemble Figure Configuration as a Satiric Strategy in African Drama

Eliah Sibonike Mwaifuge
Eliah Sibonike Mwaifuge  |  Abstract
This project examines the influence of different political ideologies such as liberalism, socialism, neo-liberalism, and gender on the representation of Tanzanian fiction in English. Previous scholarship, with its focus on Tanzanian fiction in Kiswahili, has neglected this body of literature. The project argues that, as products of the Tanzanian society, these literary works benefit from as well as exploit the various competing political idelogies to address social, cultural, economic, and political problems besetting the country. Specifically, the study examines how Tanzanian fiction in English exposes the ideologies of dominant social groups and how different writers use ideologies—both dominant and non-dominant—question and criticize the inequality persisting in society. Included in this study are the novels of Ismael Mbise, Hamza Sokko, Moyez Vassanji, Prince Kagwema, Samwilu Mwaffisi, Emmanuel Makaidi, Abdulrazak Gurnah, S. N. Ndunguru P. B. Mayega, and Elieshi Lema.These works reflect the limitations of dominant ideologies in bringing about equitable development for the poor majority, and the politics of representation in an era dominated by competing political idelogies.

Lecturer, Literature, University of Dar es Salaam  -  Where's Equality?: Ideology and the Politics of Representation in Tanzanian Fiction in English